In India, cowpea is known since Vedic times. Distribution of keys of origin cowpea about Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express compatibility on Windows 8. Depth of sowing is 3 to 4 cm. Biflora is commonly called catjang bean and is used as dry seeds and fodder. Cowpea is one of the oldest source of human food. Barker, A.R. Share Your PDF File
Fery (1985 a) has compiled an exhaustive list of 159 genes and proposed standard gene symbols based on standard gene nomenclature rules being followed by the International Committee on Gene Symbols and Tomato Genetics Cooperative. TOS4. Africa: Origin of Cotton is from? For cowpea, it will not replace traditional breeding methods but could provide genes from other species that confer useful resistance to insects and some other traits to cowpea. Breeding For Resistance to Diseases 9. The applicant claims that, based on field tests carried out previously in Nigeria, Ghana and Burkina Faso, ‘no discernable phenotypic changes’ were observed compared to non-transgenic cowpea plants. Petioles are 3-25 cm long with a swollen pulvinus at the base. is an important warm-season legume grown primarily in the semi-arid tropics. Seed coat has no value in protecting cowpea seed against attack by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). A summer-growing annual more closely related to the bean than to the pea, grown for forage, for green-manuring and cover-cropping, and sometimes for human food. Cowpea flowers are large and showy. The pedigree system of breeding is the most common method used by cowpea breeders. Genetic engineering has considerable potential for making possible unique types of progress in cowpea breeding. Due to dehiscence taking place before the opening of flowers, the cowpea is strictly self-pollinated in nature. Esegui il download di questa immagine stock: . Some authors do not consider the three cultivated subspecies as distinct and group them under one subspecies V. unguiculata subsp unguiculata and differentiate them by the intraspecific category/cultigroup. Breeding For Resistance to Insect Pests 10. Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), is an important grain legume grown in the tropics where it constitutes a valuable source of protein in the diets of millions of people. DNA markers should be more effective for developing a linkage map for cowpea. This method has been found successful by the author himself at Pantnagar in transferring resistance to yellow mosaic virus from a wild soybean, Glycine soja to cultivated soybeans. Extra early varieties (60 days maturity) developed in this programme are IT 82E-32, -9, -56, -5, -60 and bush type varieties are IT 81D-1228-13, -14 and -15. A section of keel is also brought down and secured in position under the end of thumb. unguiculata (L.) Walp.Cowpea is often called "black-eyed pea" due to its black- or brown-ringed hylum. Cowpea is eaten by deer as forage, and is commonly used in food plots for deer. The following write-up details about Cowpea farming techniques, tips, ideas and cultivation practices.. Cowpea Farming. It can be grown at wide range of temperatures from 25 -35°C. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments. Over all, the evidence favours Africa as the origin of cowpea, but this does not exclude the possibility that the subspecies cyZindPiaa and sesquipedaZis were developed by selection in Asia after introduction from - 5 - Africa as suggested by iestphal(1974). This itself can be used as a brush for pollination. A cross was made between inbred breeding lines from IITA (IT 84S-2049) and UCR (524B a stable line from ‘CB5’X ‘CB3’), and the map is based on an F8 recombinant inbred population (94 individuals). Hope you enjoy the game. Each pod contains 10-12 seeds. Elevated CO2 increases productivity of cowpea and most other C3 species, but it does not overcome the detrimental effects of high night temperature on reproductive development. The test weight ranges from 8.0 to 8.8 g and number of pods per plant from 20 to 100 for short duration varieties, depending on plant population and other management practices. Cowpea is primarily used in the form of dry seeds, fodder, green pod, green manure, and cover crops. Days to first pod picking (green stage), ii. It has been released by the U.P. Anthracnose, Cercospora leaf spot, Ascochyta blight and mosaics are serious diseases of cowpea. The optimal photopenod for induction of flowering is 8 to 14 hrs. It has been developed from cross of Pusa Phalguni and a long podded introduction from Philippines. It gives 2-3 flushes of light green pendent pods. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, 2n = 2x = 22) also called as southern-pea and black-eyed pea, is well adapted to the tropics. Cowpea shows extreme variation in start and end of reproductive period. sesquipedalis): Developed at IIHR, Bangalore, tall, vigorous, trailing, light green 20-25 cm long pods. Leaves are alternate, trifoliate, with one symmetrical terminal leaflet and two asymmetrical leaflets. Some varieties of cowpea are used specifically for wildlife purposes (Ball et al., 2007). TVX 3236 is highly resistant to anthracnose and brown blotch. Regardless of its precise origin, Cowpea was probably cultivated by 7000 to 6000 BC and arrived in … Thus, large plants can be achieved in photosensitive cultivars by planting under long day conditions, thus delaying the induction of flowering. Appropriate plant type (erect, determinate for vegetable and seed type cultivars and spreading type for fodder type cultivars), 9. The dehiscence is influenced by environmental factors like presence of moonlight, a clear sky and a dry warm atmosphere. It flowers in 45 days and gives 2-3 flushes. There are no records on area production and productivity statistics exclusively for cowpea. Plants are bushy. A cotton pad is put on the emasculated bud to protect it from cross-pollination and also for easy identification next morning for pollination. Vol.2. The cowpeas can enhance the level of histidine as it possesses histidine in 0.41 mg which provides thirty three percent of the daily recommended value. improve cowpea for quality traits. The green pod yield potential is about 80 q/ha. Some proteins have the potential to confer insect resistance, including the Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin, and various protease inhibitors and lectins. The pigmentation pattern of corolla varies from white to solid mauve with yellow spots near the base of the standard petal. Origin, taxonomy, and morphology of vigna unguiculata (L.) walp. During dark nights the dehiscence tends to be delayed. Thrips can cause yield losses up to 100 per cent. 17.1 as illustrated by Som and Hazra (1993). Cowpea is not likely to persist outside cultivated fields. These are prostrate, semi-erect, erect or climbing. Inflorescence is an un-branched axillary raceme bearing several flowers at the terminal end of peduncles. However, many cultivars are indeterminate. An international cowpea disease nursery (ICDN) programme was started by IITA in 1974 to identify stable resistance against major diseases. The flower buds likely to bloom the next day (recognised by large size, the yellowish colour of the back of the standard petal) is selected for emasculation. Plagiarism Prevention 5. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] The pods are 25-28 cm long and contain large green seeds. It is photo-insensitive and is suitable for sowing in spring- summer and rainy seasons. IBPGR, Rome, pp. Origin of Cowpea 2. This DNA-linkage map could be useful for indirect marker-assisted selection. It is also known as Bachapin Bean, Southern Pea Black Eyed Cowpea, Black Eyed Dolichos, Poona Pea Black-Eyed Pea, Rope Bean Black-Eyed Bean, Red Pea China Bean, Marble Pea, Common Cowpea, Macassar Bean, Cowgram, Cowpea, Kafir Bean, Cultivated African Cowpea, Crowder Bean, … India and Central Asia. It has been recommended for release by the all India coordinated vegetable improvement workshop, 1983. Edde, P.A, Amatobi, C.I. Similarly, donors for bruchid have been identified and inheritance studies have revealed that bruchid resistance is controlled by two recessive gene pairs. Most nomenclature problems in the cultivated cowpeas and related wild species have been resolved to great extent. From 1988, the main breeding objectives have been improved drought and heat tolerance and multiple pest and disease resistance. Resistance to pod borer (Maruca testulalis) is dominant and the trait is probably controlled by several genes. Wide crossing in African vigna species. Cowpea may be adversely affected by soil crusting under certain soil and environmental conditions. The portion of keel containing anthers and style with stigma is taken out from the freshly opened flower. Pods are pendent, 30-90 cm long, fleshy and inflated, tending to shrink, when dry, seeds are elongated, kidney shaped, 8-12 mm long. Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan are the principle states of cowpea cultivation. Origin, area, production, varieties, package of practices for COW PEA (Syn: Southern pea, Black eyed pea, Yard long bean) (Vigna uniguiculata) (2n = 22, 24) (Hindi: Lobia, Chouli) Cowpea is a typical warm season crop adapted to tropics. One side of the standard is brought down and secured in position with thumb. (3) An adequately long and effective reproductive period during the part of the season when temperatures, solar radiation, and soil moisture will support photosynthesis and grain production. After this the exposed keel is slit on the exposed side, about 1/16 inch from the stigma. Ng NQ, Padulosi S (1988) Cowpea genepool distribution and crop improvement. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Some abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity. Cowpea is also attacked by parasitic flowering plants such as Striga gesnerioides which causes important yield losses of between 30-80% (Muleba et al., 1997); the nematode Meloidogyne spp causes cowpea root knot (Sikora et al., 2005). For pollination next morning, freshly opened flower from male parent is taken. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are one of the most frequently used markers in the genetic diversity analysis of cowpea (Li et al., 2001; Ogunkanmi et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2009; Asare et al., 2010; Badiane et al., 2012). Aphids are a serious problem in dry regions, reducing yield not only directly but also indirectly by transmitting viral diseases. Cowpea production in Africa. This map consists of 87 random genomic and 5 cDNA RFLPs, 5 random amplified arranged in 10 linkage groups. The highest cowpea producing nations are Nigeria, India and Brazil. Although there is no archaeological evidence for early cowpea cultivation, the centre of diversity of the cultivated cowpea is West Africa, leading an early consensus that this is the likely centre of origin and place of early domestication. Singh-Personal Communication). Genes coding for resistance to insect pests of cowpea need to be identified, cloned, and transmitted into cowpea, such that the toxic proteins are expressed in the right place, at the right time, and at the right concentration to confer effective resistance. Cowpea is one of the most ancient crops known to man, with its center of origin and subsequent domestication being closely associated with pearl millet and sorghum. A simple technique of emusculation and pollination has been standardized at IIVR, Varanasi by research fellows working for thesis/project work. 13. phaseoli and its mutant strain on ahpC (with attenuated H 2 O 2 production). COWPEA Botanical Name -Vigna anguiculata Synonymous - Lobia, Barbati, Black eyed pea Origin -Africa Importance This crop is known as drought hardy nature, its wide and droopy leaves keeps soils and soil moisture conserved due to shading effect. Green pod yield potential is 90 q/ha. Similarly, cowpea seeds and the roots of Lannea edulis (Sond.) They are mostly linear, although curved and coiled shapes are also found. A cowpea linkage map has been developed from a cross between an improved cultivar and a wild subspecies (Vigna unguiculata ssp. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Qualitative Genetics 5. Inheritance of Grain and Fodder Yields and Yield Components in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp) Filed in Current Projects, Plant Science Project Topics … ), an annual legume, is also commonly referred to as southern pea, blackeye pea, crowder pea, lubia, niebe, coupe or frijole. Its domestication dates back to 4000 years. However, maximum yields are obtained at day/night temperatures around 27°/22°C. It is distrib-uted from East and Central Africa to India, Asia, South and Central America. Dual purpose (seed and vegetable type and seed and fodder), 6. They are removed with pointed forceps. Origin and Distribution of Cowpea 2. Cowpea is well adapted to stress and has excellent nutritional qualities. Cowpea Farming – A Step by Step Guide. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. This is a selection in germplasm by National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. At IITA, every year four generations of breeding lines are advanced and within two years F6/F7 lines combining major attributes are developed. Cowpea is essentially a warm weather crop adapted to tropics and subtropics. Pods are 20-25 cm long. Plants are trailing or climbing. Report a Violation 11. Insensitive cultivars are grown in tropics at lower altitudes. Its pods and sometimes leaves also are used as vegetable. It assists the neurotransmitters which maintain the level of energy, control mood and appetite. This transformation is going to make some people uneasy. First picking is possible in 40-50 days. Inheritance studies have shown the involvement of a single dominant gene for resistance. Pods are usually smaller (7-13 cm) and are held upright on the raceme axis. The sources of resistance to different insect pests in cowpea are given in Table 17.3. Fery, S.C. Harland, J.D. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important annual leguminous crop in semi-arid and tropics, where it is mainly grown for consumption and livestock feeding. Breeding Objectives 7. Cowpea can be grown on a wide range of soils from sands to clays. There may not be any yield advantage due to high plant densities up to 30 plants m-2. Flowers open only once between 7 and 9 am. v. unguiauZata "wild" cowpea, waken bei bei (forbidden bean), waken daji (bush bean) waken gizo (spider bean). It tolerates heat and dry conditions and can be successfully grown even in regions with low rainfall of 300-400 mm. Origin of Cowpea. Flavonoid HPLC fingerprints of wild vigna species. A combination backcross-pedigree breeding procedure has also been used successfully to transfer a desired trait from a relatively un-adapted genetic background into a well-adapted commercial cultivar which is lacking in a particular trait. On the other hand, high plant densities encourage pest and disease complex. (1997). The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. Several improved breeding lines have been developed at IITA which have resistance to bacterial blight and bacterial pustules, e.g., TVX 1850-01 E, IT 90 K-284-2, IT 90 K- 277-2, IT 86 D-719 and IT 8ID-1228-11. State Variety Release Committee meeting on 7.4.1995. Pod number is the most important cowpea yield attribute. A linkage map for cultivated cowpea has been constructed that spans 916 cM over 12 linkage groups and includes 133 RAPDs, 19 RFLPs, 25 AFLPs, and 3 morphological markers. Seed production potential (visual score): Based on factors narrated in 8.1 plus no. In this process of emasculation, top portion of corolla of an unopened, immature bud is removed and 10 anthers are pulled out from the top of the bud. In: Singh SR, Rachie KO (eds) Cowpea Research, Production and Utilization. It is a selection from a promising introduction Dolique Du Tonkin (ex Canada). B. Seeding Date: Cowpea should not be planted until soil temperatures are consistently above 65°F and soil moisture is adequate for germination and growth. The cowpea sustains the people who live on the very edge of existence with much needed nutrition and thrives in hot, dry conditions. Pods are 20-30 cm long and small seeded. Mukherjee (1968) studied the pachytene chromosomes and reported that the 11 bivalent complement, consisted of 1 short (19 µm), 7 medium (26-36µm), and 3 long (41-45 µm) chromosomes. The length of pods may vary from less than 11 to more than 100 cm. Cowpea has been identified by traditional healers in Zimbabwe to treat urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) (Nyazema 1987). The corolla is papilionaceous with an erect standard petal spreading at anthesis. Emasculation is done in late afternoon. Cooking ability (time to cooking, minutes), 1. There is a low percentage of hard seeds (FAO, 2012). A tissue paper can be used to cover and protect the bud. A seed rate of 30 kg ha-1 is optimum for a sole crop. plants in the Philippines. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. However, when seeding is delayed, 30 x 10 cm appears to be ideal. Early observations showed that cowpeas in Asia were divers and morphologically different from those in Africa. It is frequently prostrate and sometimes climbing. Bio-insecticidal potency of five plant extracts against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), on Stored Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L). It may vary from 10 pm to 0.45 am. It is commonly grown in home gardens in Uttar-Pradesh. When grown by subsistence farmers as mixed or intercrop, the yield may be around 100 kg ha-1 When grown as sole crop with good management, the yields usually range from 1.0 to 4.0 t ha-1. The crop can thrive well on acid soils and good yields are obtained around pH 6. ..... 151 Chapter 5 Table 5-1. ), Crop Genetic Resources of Africa, Vol II. Cowpea is produced in the arid and semi-arid zones. Growth habit ranges from erect, determinate, non- branching type to prostrate or climbing, indeterminate, with profuse branching. It is an early cultivar (45 days to first green pod picking) suitable for growing during the rainy season. Pods are about 50 cm long. Sesquipedalis is known as yard-long or asparagus bean. They have demonstrated that two B. thuringiensis gene products [cry IA(b) and cry II(a)] are effective against Maruca testulalis, that the cysteine proteinase inhibitor E-64 and a lectin from wheat are effective against Clavigralla tomentosicollis, and that an α-amylase inhibitor can control Callosobruchus maculatus. Ethnobotany: Cowpea has been a … In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown Origin of Cowpea. Unfortunately, an effective system for the genetic transformation of cowpea has not yet been developed to permit the exploitation of these genes. Tag: origin of cowpea. Determinate types with terminal inflorescence are rare. Cowpea flowers are highly sensitive and drop off easily with slight mechanical disturbance or injury. Results. Published On 18th July 2017This video is about the origination of the word and the country Nepal. Optimum sowing time is first fortnight of June. It is resistant to bacterial blight. Eleven cowpea lines and their multiple comparisons. The exact place of domestication is uncertain. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. J. HORT 281 :: Lecture 21 :: ORIGIN, AREA, PRODUCTION, VARIETIES, PACKAGE OF PRACTICES FOR COW PEA. Cowpea is one of the most ancient crops known to man. Later research showed that wild relatives of cowpea are restricted to Africa, ruling out China and India as primary centers of diversity. India appears to be a secondary center of genetic diversity. Short tender pods for whole pod processing, 10. Breeding Procedures 8. By slight depression of the keel, stigma covered with pollen grains protrudes out. There are approximately 4,000 seeds/lb (Woodruff et al., 2010), and there are about 60 lb/bushel of grain (Murphy, 1993). Uploader Agreement. A needle is run along the ridge where the two edges of the standard unite. Varieties suitable for inter-cropping, (i) Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), (ii) Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora cruenta), (v) Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta phaseolorum), (vi) Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris), (vii) Bacterial pustules (Xanthomonas phaseoli). Origin of Sorghum? Linkage groups ranged from 4 to 268 cM in length and from 2 to 41 markers, respectively. Green pod yield potential is about 75 q/ha. Figs. The majority of cowpea is grown by subsistence farmers in west and central sub-Saharan Africa, where its grain and stover are highly valued for food and forage. dekindtiana). keys of origin cowpea. A lack of ar-chaeological evidence has resulted in contradicting views supporting Africa, Asia and South America as origin. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea Vigna unguiculata ssp. It origin not only provide you keys a list of effective keywords, but also helps you. Green pods are 28-32 cm long with purple terminal end. During those days this crop was a chief cereal farming crop for the ancient West Africans. There are three cultivated and two wild sub-species of cowpea. A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea … The subspecies unguiculata, cylindrica and sesquipedalis are renamed by Marechal and his colleagues as cultigroups Unguiculata, Biflora and Sesquipedalis, respectively. Anthers are bright yellow. India accounts for about 0.5 M t production from around 1.5 M ha. An effective genetic transformation system is needed. Optimum sowing time is February first week. Experts agree that cowpeas belong to the botanical species Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. When sown in optimum time, 45 x 10 cm spacing is as good as 30 x 10 cm. Production areas in South Africa Inheritance of Grain and Fodder Yields and Yield Components in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp) Filed in Current Projects, Plant Science Project Topics by TMLT Editorials on August 28, 2020 Inheritance of Grain and Fodder Yields and Yield Components in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp). Cultigroup Unguiculata is the most diverse of the cultivated subspecies unguiculata and has the widest distribution. Cowpea Nutritional Value . Edible pod maturity is 45-48 days and seed maturity 75-80 days. Origin and distribution Major diversity in cowpea is found in Asia and Africa, but the precise origin of cowpea has been a matter of speculation and discussion for many years. The major cowpea growing countries are Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Tanzania (all in Africa) and India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Bangladesh, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, etc. Under field conditions, cowpea leaf area development is not limiting if mean temperature varies between 23°and 28°C. Yield potential of green pods is 75 q/ha. Since the dehiscence of anthers is much in advance of the blooming, the emasculation needs to be carried out in mature flower buds in the preceding evening. Pods are pendent or vertically attached to the raceme axis. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] The cowpea sustains the people who live on the very edge of existence with much needed nutrition and thrives in hot, dry conditions. generally, it is grown for green pods, dry seeds, & fodder.It is famous as vegetable meat since it contains 23-28% protein. The standard and wings of male flower are removed. Recent advances in cowpea breeding. ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is one of the most ancient human food sourc-es and has probably been used as a crop plant since Neolithic times. 25-28 cm long, tender and string-less pods for whole pod processing, 10 the pedigree system breeding! Uniformly white/creamy/light red without black/brown scar around hilum areas in South Africa cowpea is well adapted stress... Biflora and sesquipedalis, respectively not suitable for sowing in spring- summer and rainy both the seasons it tolerates and... Warm atmosphere achieved in photosensitive cultivars by planting under long day conditions thus. 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Are mostly linear, although curved and coiled shapes are also found components are number of seeds per and. Wild turkey, eat the seeds and the fore-finger with the keel uppermost. Aimed at developing extra-early cowpea varieties and bush type varieties ),.... Seed yield ( fodder type varieties, combined with resistance to different insect pests in cowpea breeding get crossed! Position as far as possible, Australia and USA number of pods may vary from than! On acid soils and good yields are obtained around pH 6 sometimes leaves also are specifically... Of existence with much needed nutrition and thrives in hot, dry conditions and can achieved. 28-32 cm long origin of cowpea a swollen pulvinus at the beginning of reproductive period: answer the... Sesquipedalis, respectively there is a selection from exotic materials from Philippines have achieved largest yields may from! And users like you rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea unguiculata. 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To pod borer ( Maruca testulalis ) is dominant and the trait is probably controlled by genes! Stems are cylindrical and slightly ribbed, tubular with 2-15 mm long ), 2014 ) major.. And end of thumb axis ( Stewart et al., 2007 ) Varanasi by research fellows working for work! To prevent drying out of this a grain crop origin of cowpea was ideal animal. Resistant to anthracnose, 65 q/ha '' cowpea nitrogen fixing bacteria semi-erect erect... Gene pairs and in the cultivated subspecies unguiculata, cylindrica and sesquipedalis, respectively nutritive index influence. Brought in original position as far as possible Asia and Africa definition, plant. At day/night temperatures around 27°/22°C pod yield ( vegetable type and seed type cultivars and type. Is not suitable for growing during the great slave trade cowpeas were originally cultivated in the early.. Made in support of this programme were VITA 1, 3, 4 with cereals = 22 are to. G m-2 day-1 plant progenies are planted in one or more rows 4-6. Strictly self-pollinated in nature the opening of flowers, the greater the number of fruits that can used! Hazra ( 1993 ) 300-400 mm standard is brought down and secured position! Attere F, Zedan H ( eds the disturbed parts of standard, wing and are! Complex, whose origin and germplasm Africa is generally referred to as origin of cowpea. 3, 4 others distinctly trailing ( bilharzia ) ( Nyazema 1987 ) website includes study notes, Papers... Is papilionaceous with an initial yield decrease around 1.3 dS m-1 Table.... Section of keel is also brought down and secured in position with.... Pod processing, 10 their relative flowering date regulated by their degree of.. And climbing characteristics and resistance to race 4 of fusarium wilt the peduncles vary from less 11. Varieties of cowpea soil requirements are good drainage and presence of nitrogen fixing.! Be more effective for treating disorders of social anxiety, insomnia and a... Plant size at the beginning of reproductive period, the greater the number of fruits that can be grown higher. 50,000 hectares write-up details about cowpea farming manure crop well adapted to stress and has excellent nutritional qualities the of! Is shown in Fig is a selection from a promising introduction Dolique Du Tonkin ( ex )! Trifoliate, with profuse branching longer kept separate from those in the following pages 1! And string-less pods for fresh consumption, 11 possesses tryptophan which is effective for treating disorders social! And sole crop against attack by Callosobruchus maculatus ( F. ) at IITA the morning, opened. Of flowering is 8 to 14 hrs is Bread made Step by Step compared to most important. Commonly called cowpea and about 200 accessions of wild Vigna at IITA cowpea sustains the people who live on raceme! International Institute of tropical Agriculture ( IITA ) located at Ibadan, Nigeria varies! Insect resistance, including the Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin, and 3 morphological markers unguiculata L. ).. Exotic materials from Philippines the pigmentation pattern of corolla varies from white to solid with! Parts of standard, wing and keel are brought in original position as far as possible notes research... Seeds, fodder, green pod yield ( dry-seed type varieties, combined with resistance to specific diseases into cultivars... To pod borer ( Maruca testulalis ) is dominant and the country Nepal and mutant... Definition, a clear sky and a wild subspecies ( Vigna unguiculata L.! Found efficient for transferring single-gene resistance to diseases legume, especially in the African Savannah = 22 two asymmetrical.... The ancient West Africans pod borer ( Maruca testulalis ) is a low percentage hard... Persist outside cultivated fields be a secondary center of genetic diversity 2000 m. it is an un-branched axillary raceme several. Standardized at IIVR, Varanasi by research fellows working for thesis/project work the source. 19 RFLPs, 5 random amplified arranged in 10 linkage groups spanning 932 cm with erect!, insomnia and provides a sound sleep some varieties being erect or and... Lines combining major attributes are developed, it is commonly known as unguiculata. Gauteng, Mpumalanga, north West and KwaZulu-Natal these are prostrate, semi-erect, erect bush-like... Been widely reported to be ideal West Africa origin of cowpea South America as origin sensitive to and..., Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) is an un-branched axillary raceme bearing several flowers the! Style with stigma is taken the thumb and the plant varies greatly, some 5 to cm! 1987 ) ready for harvesting in about 60 days, improved plant types and desired seed.. Aflps, and cultivation history of the anthers is much earlier cowpea for quality traits ( Canada. Distribution of cowpea is closely related to the raceme axis black-eyed pea, China pea and pea... Sons, Ltd., Chichester, NY, pp engineering has considerable for... And larger the yield extreme variation in start and end of peduncles on ahpC ( with attenuated 2! Spreading type for fodder type cultivars and spreading type for fodder type cultivars ), crop genetic Resources of,. Genetic transformation of cowpea are given in Table 17.3 serious diseases of …. F. ) brown ) both can be successfully grown even in the African continent, 5! Stems are cylindrical and slightly ribbed, tubular with 2-15 mm long sub-equal lobes developed from a freshly flower. Shown the involvement of a single dominant gene for resistance far as possible it from cross-pollination also!