This is evidenced by the discontinuous intermixing of philosophical verses with theistic or passionately theistic verses, according to Basham.  While the shloka is the principal meter in the Gita, it does deploy other elements of Sanskrit prosody. Since Shankara's time, the "700 verses" has been the standard benchmark for the critical edition of the Bhagavad Gita.  It has also attracted commentaries in regional vernacular languages for centuries, such as the one by Dnyaneshwar in Marathi language (13th century). ":518, According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms". He saw the main message as the bravery and courage of Arjuna to fight as a warrior. At last, an edition of the Bhagavad Gita that speaks with unprecedented fidelity and clarity, letting the profound beauty and depth of this classic shine through. It upholds the necessity of action.  Aurobindo saw Bhagavad Gita as a "scripture of the future religion" and suggested that Hinduism had acquired a much wider relevance through the Gita.  Modi gave a copy of it to the then President of the United States of America, Barack Obama in 2014 during his U.S. manus ca loka-bhrty-artham sutayeksvakave dadau The different paths, says Krishna, aim for—and if properly pursued, lead to—Self-knowledge.  Thomas Merton, the Trappist monk and author of books on Zen Buddhism, concurs with Gandhi and states that the Gita is not teaching violence nor propounding a "make war" ideology. A part of the verse from this chapter was recited by Robert Oppenheimer as he witnessed the first atomic bomb explosion. , The first reference to dharma in the Bhagavad Gita occurs in its first verse, where Dhritarashtra refers to the Kurukshetra, the location of the battlefield, as the Field of Dharma, "The Field of Righteousness or Truth". Present Kali Yuga is 5100+ years old and before that Dwapara Yuga lasted for 864,000 years. He wonders if fighting the war is "not so important after all" given Krishna's overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel. , Liberation or moksha in Vedanta philosophy is not something that can be acquired. nor those who refrain from action, The Gita text he commented on, is slightly different recension than the one of Adi Shankara. Aurobindo writes, "... That is a view which the general character and the actual language of the epic does not justify and, if pressed, would turn the straightforward philosophical language of the.  According to Christopher Chapelle, in the Madhva's school there is "an eternal and complete distinction between the Supreme, the many souls, and matter and its divisions". Written by  Through the message of the Gita, Vivekananda sought to energise the people of India to reclaim their dormant but strong identity. [note 20] Vinoba Bhave has written the Geeta in Marathi language as Geetai i.e. , Some translators title the chapter as Bhakti yoga, The Religion of Faith, The Way of Love, or The Yoga of Devotion. , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, in his commentary on the Gita, interprets the battle as "an allegory in which the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, man's higher impulses struggling against evil".  The Bhagavad Gita is often preserved and studied on its own, as an independent text with its chapters renumbered from 1 to 18. In light of the Ahimsa (non-violence) teachings in Hindu scriptures, the Gita has been criticized as violating the Ahimsa value, or alternatively, as supporting political violence.  Those who act without craving for fruits are free from the karmic effects, because the results never motivated them.  Shankara interprets the Gita in a monist, nondualistic tradition (Advaita Vedanta). , Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in contrast, dates it a bit earlier.  The Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi; the latter referred to it as his "spiritual dictionary"..  According to Raju, the Gita supports this identity and spiritual monism, but as a form of synthesis with a personal God. , According to Edwin Bryant, the Indologist with publications on Krishna-related Hindu traditions, the Gita rejects "actionless behavior" found in some Indic monastic traditions. " He deduced from the Gita the doctrine that "the functions of a man ought to be determined by his natural turn, gift, and capacities", that the individual should "develop freely" and thereby would be best able to serve society.  According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the "purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human soul, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest". , Novel interpretations of the Gita, along with apologetics on it, have been a part of the modern era revisionism and renewal movements within Hinduism. Sections of this page. Thus Gita discusses and synthesizes the three dominant trends in Hinduism: enlightenment-based renunciation, dharma-based householder life, and devotion-based theism.  Krishna qualifies the three divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and even eating habits corresponding to the three modes (gunas). The chapter recommends devotional worship of Krishna. Krishna says he is the atman in all beings, Arjuna's innermost Self, also compassionate Vishnu, the Surya (sun god), Indra, Shiva-Rudra, Ananta, Yama, as well as the Om, Vedic sages, time, Gayatri mantra, and the science of Self-knowledge.  The word Vyasa literally means "arranger, compiler", and is a surname in India. Every man or woman is bound by activity. Living Blissfully Through Bhagavad Gita.  Krishna reveals that he has taught this yoga to the Vedic sages. , Abhinavagupta was a theologian and philosopher of the Kashmir Shaivism (Shiva) tradition. " The Gita likely spawned a "powerful devotionalism" movement, states Fowler, because the text and this path was simpler, available to everyone. This dharma has "resonances at many different levels". The debate about the relationship between the, According to Basham, passionately theistic verses are found, for example, in chapters 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14.1–6 with 14.29, 15, 18.54–78; while more philosophical verses with one or two verses where Krishna identifies himself as the highest god are found, for example, in chapters 2.38–72, 3, 5, 6, 8, 13 and 14.7–25, 16, 17 and 18.1–53. , The Upanishads developed the equation "Atman = Brahman", states Fowler, and this belief is central to the Gita.  According to Paul Hacker, the term dharma has additional meanings in the context of Arjuna. Even a monk should strive for the "inner renunciation", rather than external pretensions. yogo nastah parantapa – Bhagavad Gita 4.2.  The text has occasional pre-classical elements of the Sanskrit language, such as the aorist and the prohibitive mā instead of the expected na (not) of classical Sanskrit. Bhakti is the most important means of attaining liberation.  The Wilkins translation had an introduction to the Gita by Warren Hastings. All phenomena and individual personalities are a combination of all three gunas in varying and ever-changing proportions. , The Gita teaches the path of Karma yoga in Chapter 3 and others. Whatever the result, it does not affect them.  The theme that unites these paths in the Gita is "inner renunciation" where one is unattached to personal rewards during one's spiritual journey. The Bhagavad Gita is the compilation of Arjuna's questions and moral dilemma, Krishna's answers and insights that elaborate on a variety of philosophical concepts. For seeing the Lord as the same everywhere present, he does not destroy the Self by the Self, and thus he goes to the highest goal. Dear devotee, Welcome. This would date the text as transmitted by the oral tradition to the later centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE, and the first written version probably to the 2nd or 3rd century CE. , The Bhagavad Gita manuscript is found in the sixth book of the Mahabharata manuscripts – the Bhisma-parvan.  While Hinduism is known for its diversity and its synthesis therefrom, the Bhagavad Gita has a unique pan-Hindu influence.  Some infer, states Vivekananda, that "Shankaracharya was the author of Gita, and that it was he who foisted it into the body of the Mahabharata. Talking about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, Khattar said, “Due to Covid-19 situation, this year International Gita Mahotsav is being organised through digital medium so that we could achieve the objective of disseminating the teachings of Bhagavad Gita in every corner of the world.”. Facebook. John C. Plott et al. Krishna describes the process of devotional service (Bhakti yoga). , Some translators title this chapter as Karma–Sanyasa yoga, Religion by Renouncing Fruits of Works, Renounce and Rejoice, or The Yoga of Renunciation. This chapter of the Gita, states Easwaran, offers a "vastly easier" path to most human beings to identify and love God in an anthropomorphic representation, in any form. , According to Richard Davis, the Gita has attracted much scholarly interest in Indian history and some 227 commentaries have survived in the Sanskrit language alone. On May 5 1945, the scientist Oppenheimer witnessed an experimental explosion of the atomic bomb in a desert near Mexico. The setting of the Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life. Krishna states that he is everywhere and in everything in an unmanifested form, yet he is not in any way limited by them. " The Udyoga Parva presents many views about the nature of a warrior, his duty and what calls for heroic action. , According to Gambhirananda, the old manuscripts may have had 745 verses, though he agrees that 700 verses is the generally accepted historic standard. The Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition.  According to Winthrop Sargeant, the text acknowledges that some individuals are more reflective and intellectual, some affective and engaged by their emotions, some are action driven, yet others favor experimenting and exploring what works. It teaches both the abstract and the personalized Brahman (God), the latter in the form of Krishna.  This chapter also relies on the Samkhya theories.  However, Aurobindo rejected the interpretation that the Gita, and the Mahabharata by extension, is only "an allegory of the inner life", and it has nothing to do with our outward human life and actions. NV Isaeva (1992), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press. The Mahabharata – the world's longest poem – is itself a text that was likely written and compiled over several hundred years, one dated between "400 BCE or little earlier, and 2nd century CE, though some claim a few parts can be put as late as 400 CE", states Fowler. [note 8], The Bhagavad Gita's synthetic answer recommends that one must resist the "either-or" view, and consider a "both-and" view. sri-bhagavan uvaca , Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was mostly unknown in the Indian history till early 8th century when Adi Shankara (Shankaracharya) made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it. [note 12], Some translators have variously titled the first chapter as Arjuna vishada yoga, Prathama Adhyaya, The Distress of Arjuna, The War Within, or Arjuna's Sorrow.  To a karma yogi, right work done well is a form of prayer, and karma yoga is the path of selfless action.  Desires, selfishness and the craving for fruits can distort one from the dharmic action and spiritual living.  In the final and long chapter, the Gita offers a final summary of its teachings in the previous chapters.  The chapter once again opens with Krishna continuing his discourse from the previous chapter. , Jnana yoga is the path of knowledge, wisdom, and direct realization of the Brahman.  According to Dnyaneshwar, the Gita starts off with the discussion of sva-dharma in Arjuna's context but ultimately shows that caste differences are not important. Each of these quarters is further arranged into "two metrical feet of four syllables each", state Flood and Martin. In 1966, Mahārishi Mahesh Yogi published a partial translation. It also "relegates the sacrificial system of the early Vedic literature to a path that goes nowhere because it is based on desires", states Bryant.  Another Hindu legend states that Vyasa narrated it while the elephant-headed deity Ganesha broke one of his tusks and wrote down the Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita.  His commentary on the Gita is called Gita Bhāshya. , A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, 11th President of India, despite being a Muslim, used to read Bhagavad Gita and recite mantras.. For Gandhi, the Gita is teaching that people should fight for justice and righteous values, that they should never meekly suffer injustice to avoid a war.  According to the Indologist Arvind Sharma, the Gita is generally accepted to be a 2nd-century-BCE text. evam parampara-praptam A synthesis of knowledge, devotion, and desireless action is offered by Krishna as a spectrum of choices to Arjuna; the same combination is suggested to the reader as a way to moksha. The gunas affect the ego, but not the soul, according to the text. My earliest memory of the “ Bhagavad Gita ” is a worn-from-use, spine-twisted, hardcover copy of the epic my grandmother kept on a dressing table—which would later go on to become a family heirloom. While t… This legend is depicted with Ganesha (Vinayaka) iconography in Hindu temples where he is shown with a broken right tusk and his right arm holds the broken tusk as if it was a stylus. [note 15] In the Upanishads that preceded the Gita such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the salvific goal is to know and realize this Self, a knowledge that is devoid of the delusions of instinctive "I, mine, egoistic" typically connected with the body, material life processes that are impermanent and transient.  Arjuna, after listening to Krishna's spiritual teachings in Chapter 2, gets more confounded and returns to the predicament he faces.  Swami Vivekananda interprets the first discourse in the Gita as well as the "Kurushetra war" allegorically.  In this chapter, Krishna glorifies the path of love and devotion to God. The warrior Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has doubts about. B. van Buitenen, was published by Emile Senart in 1922.  While the year and century is uncertain, states Richard Davis, the internal evidence in the text dates the origin of the Gita discourse to the Hindu lunar month of Margashirsha (also called Agrahayana, generally December or January of the Gregorian calendar). Abhinavagupta's commentary is notable for its citations of more ancient scholars, in a style similar to Adi Shankara. It openly synthesizes and inclusively accepts multiple ways of life, harmonizing spiritual pursuits through action (karma), knowledge (gyaana), and devotion (bhakti). The messages contained in the Bhagavad Gita are universally applicable to all, irrespective of their country or religion. The simultaneous outer action with inner renunciation, states Krishna, is the secret to the life of freedom. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of Bhishma Parva), dated to the second century BCE. 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