This is evidenced by the discontinuous intermixing of philosophical verses with theistic or passionately theistic verses, according to Basham. [97] While the shloka is the principal meter in the Gita, it does deploy other elements of Sanskrit prosody. Since Shankara's time, the "700 verses" has been the standard benchmark for the critical edition of the Bhagavad Gita. [274] It has also attracted commentaries in regional vernacular languages for centuries, such as the one by Dnyaneshwar in Marathi language (13th century). "[246]:518, According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms". He saw the main message as the bravery and courage of Arjuna to fight as a warrior. At last, an edition of the Bhagavad Gita that speaks with unprecedented fidelity and clarity, letting the profound beauty and depth of this classic shine through. It upholds the necessity of action. [367] Aurobindo saw Bhagavad Gita as a "scripture of the future religion" and suggested that Hinduism had acquired a much wider relevance through the Gita. [321] Modi gave a copy of it to the then President of the United States of America, Barack Obama in 2014 during his U.S. manus ca loka-bhrty-artham sutayeksvakave dadau The different paths, says Krishna, aim for—and if properly pursued, lead to—Self-knowledge. [115] Thomas Merton, the Trappist monk and author of books on Zen Buddhism, concurs with Gandhi and states that the Gita is not teaching violence nor propounding a "make war" ideology. A part of the verse from this chapter was recited by Robert Oppenheimer as he witnessed the first atomic bomb explosion. [222], The first reference to dharma in the Bhagavad Gita occurs in its first verse, where Dhritarashtra refers to the Kurukshetra, the location of the battlefield, as the Field of Dharma, "The Field of Righteousness or Truth". Present Kali Yuga is 5100+ years old and before that Dwapara Yuga lasted for 864,000 years. He wonders if fighting the war is "not so important after all" given Krishna's overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel. [236], Liberation or moksha in Vedanta philosophy is not something that can be acquired. nor those who refrain from action, The Gita text he commented on, is slightly different recension than the one of Adi Shankara. Aurobindo writes, "... That is a view which the general character and the actual language of the epic does not justify and, if pressed, would turn the straightforward philosophical language of the. [279] According to Christopher Chapelle, in the Madhva's school there is "an eternal and complete distinction between the Supreme, the many souls, and matter and its divisions". Written by [366] Through the message of the Gita, Vivekananda sought to energise the people of India to reclaim their dormant but strong identity. [267][268][note 20] Vinoba Bhave has written the Geeta in Marathi language as Geetai i.e. [142], Some translators title the chapter as Bhakti yoga, The Religion of Faith, The Way of Love, or The Yoga of Devotion. [229], Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, in his commentary on the Gita,[230] interprets the battle as "an allegory in which the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, man's higher impulses struggling against evil". [88] The Bhagavad Gita is often preserved and studied on its own, as an independent text with its chapters renumbered from 1 to 18. In light of the Ahimsa (non-violence) teachings in Hindu scriptures, the Gita has been criticized as violating the Ahimsa value, or alternatively, as supporting political violence. [120] Those who act without craving for fruits are free from the karmic effects, because the results never motivated them. [279][280] Shankara interprets the Gita in a monist, nondualistic tradition (Advaita Vedanta). [41], Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in contrast, dates it a bit earlier. [14][15] The Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi; the latter referred to it as his "spiritual dictionary".[16]. [178] According to Raju, the Gita supports this identity and spiritual monism, but as a form of synthesis with a personal God. [207][208], According to Edwin Bryant, the Indologist with publications on Krishna-related Hindu traditions, the Gita rejects "actionless behavior" found in some Indic monastic traditions. "[357] He deduced from the Gita the doctrine that "the functions of a man ought to be determined by his natural turn, gift, and capacities",[357] that the individual should "develop freely"[357] and thereby would be best able to serve society. [104] According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the "purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human soul, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest". [361], Novel interpretations of the Gita, along with apologetics on it, have been a part of the modern era revisionism and renewal movements within Hinduism. Sections of this page. Thus Gita discusses and synthesizes the three dominant trends in Hinduism: enlightenment-based renunciation, dharma-based householder life, and devotion-based theism. [18][112][113] Krishna qualifies the three divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and even eating habits corresponding to the three modes (gunas). The chapter recommends devotional worship of Krishna. Krishna says he is the atman in all beings, Arjuna's innermost Self, also compassionate Vishnu, the Surya (sun god), Indra, Shiva-Rudra, Ananta, Yama, as well as the Om, Vedic sages, time, Gayatri mantra, and the science of Self-knowledge. [25][29][30] The word Vyasa literally means "arranger, compiler", and is a surname in India. Every man or woman is bound by activity. Living Blissfully Through Bhagavad Gita. [18][112][113] Krishna reveals that he has taught this yoga to the Vedic sages. [283], Abhinavagupta was a theologian and philosopher of the Kashmir Shaivism (Shiva) tradition. "[192] The Gita likely spawned a "powerful devotionalism" movement, states Fowler, because the text and this path was simpler, available to everyone. This dharma has "resonances at many different levels". The debate about the relationship between the, According to Basham, passionately theistic verses are found, for example, in chapters 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14.1–6 with 14.29, 15, 18.54–78; while more philosophical verses with one or two verses where Krishna identifies himself as the highest god are found, for example, in chapters 2.38–72, 3, 5, 6, 8, 13 and 14.7–25, 16, 17 and 18.1–53. [179], The Upanishads developed the equation "Atman = Brahman", states Fowler, and this belief is central to the Gita. [214] According to Paul Hacker, the term dharma has additional meanings in the context of Arjuna. Even a monk should strive for the "inner renunciation", rather than external pretensions. yogo nastah parantapa – Bhagavad Gita 4.2. [47] The text has occasional pre-classical elements of the Sanskrit language, such as the aorist and the prohibitive mā instead of the expected na (not) of classical Sanskrit. Bhakti is the most important means of attaining liberation. [244] The Wilkins translation had an introduction to the Gita by Warren Hastings. All phenomena and individual personalities are a combination of all three gunas in varying and ever-changing proportions. [181], The Gita teaches the path of Karma yoga in Chapter 3 and others. Whatever the result, it does not affect them. [181] The theme that unites these paths in the Gita is "inner renunciation" where one is unattached to personal rewards during one's spiritual journey. The Bhagavad Gita is the compilation of Arjuna's questions and moral dilemma, Krishna's answers and insights that elaborate on a variety of philosophical concepts. For seeing the Lord as the same everywhere present, he does not destroy the Self by the Self, and thus he goes to the highest goal. Dear devotee, Welcome. This would date the text as transmitted by the oral tradition to the later centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE, and the first written version probably to the 2nd or 3rd century CE. [11], The Bhagavad Gita manuscript is found in the sixth book of the Mahabharata manuscripts – the Bhisma-parvan. [13] While Hinduism is known for its diversity and its synthesis therefrom, the Bhagavad Gita has a unique pan-Hindu influence. [32][33] Some infer, states Vivekananda, that "Shankaracharya was the author of Gita, and that it was he who foisted it into the body of the Mahabharata. Talking about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, Khattar said, “Due to Covid-19 situation, this year International Gita Mahotsav is being organised through digital medium so that we could achieve the objective of disseminating the teachings of Bhagavad Gita in every corner of the world.”. Facebook. John C. Plott et al. Krishna describes the process of devotional service (Bhakti yoga). [123][124], Some translators title this chapter as Karma–Sanyasa yoga, Religion by Renouncing Fruits of Works, Renounce and Rejoice, or The Yoga of Renunciation. This chapter of the Gita, states Easwaran, offers a "vastly easier" path to most human beings to identify and love God in an anthropomorphic representation, in any form. [273], According to Richard Davis, the Gita has attracted much scholarly interest in Indian history and some 227 commentaries have survived in the Sanskrit language alone. On May 5 1945, the scientist Oppenheimer witnessed an experimental explosion of the atomic bomb in a desert near Mexico. The setting of the Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life. Krishna states that he is everywhere and in everything in an unmanifested form, yet he is not in any way limited by them. "[217] The Udyoga Parva presents many views about the nature of a warrior, his duty and what calls for heroic action. [63][91], According to Gambhirananda, the old manuscripts may have had 745 verses, though he agrees that 700 verses is the generally accepted historic standard. The Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition. [83] According to Winthrop Sargeant, the text acknowledges that some individuals are more reflective and intellectual, some affective and engaged by their emotions, some are action driven, yet others favor experimenting and exploring what works. It teaches both the abstract and the personalized Brahman (God), the latter in the form of Krishna. [151] This chapter also relies on the Samkhya theories. [233] However, Aurobindo rejected the interpretation that the Gita, and the Mahabharata by extension, is only "an allegory of the inner life", and it has nothing to do with our outward human life and actions. NV Isaeva (1992), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press. The Mahabharata – the world's longest poem – is itself a text that was likely written and compiled over several hundred years, one dated between "400 BCE or little earlier, and 2nd century CE, though some claim a few parts can be put as late as 400 CE", states Fowler. [12][note 8], The Bhagavad Gita's synthetic answer recommends that one must resist the "either-or" view, and consider a "both-and" view. sri-bhagavan uvaca [31], Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was mostly unknown in the Indian history till early 8th century when Adi Shankara (Shankaracharya) made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it. [18][note 12], Some translators have variously titled the first chapter as Arjuna vishada yoga, Prathama Adhyaya, The Distress of Arjuna, The War Within, or Arjuna's Sorrow. [185] To a karma yogi, right work done well is a form of prayer,[186] and karma yoga is the path of selfless action. [76][77][78] Desires, selfishness and the craving for fruits can distort one from the dharmic action and spiritual living. [18][112][113] In the final and long chapter, the Gita offers a final summary of its teachings in the previous chapters. [18][112][113] The chapter once again opens with Krishna continuing his discourse from the previous chapter. [193], Jnana yoga is the path of knowledge, wisdom, and direct realization of the Brahman. [351] According to Dnyaneshwar, the Gita starts off with the discussion of sva-dharma in Arjuna's context but ultimately shows that caste differences are not important. Each of these quarters is further arranged into "two metrical feet of four syllables each", state Flood and Martin. In 1966, Mahārishi Mahesh Yogi published a partial translation. It also "relegates the sacrificial system of the early Vedic literature to a path that goes nowhere because it is based on desires", states Bryant. [24] Another Hindu legend states that Vyasa narrated it while the elephant-headed deity Ganesha broke one of his tusks and wrote down the Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita. [288] His commentary on the Gita is called Gita Bhāshya. [332], A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, 11th President of India, despite being a Muslim, used to read Bhagavad Gita and recite mantras.[333][334][335][336][337]. For Gandhi, the Gita is teaching that people should fight for justice and righteous values, that they should never meekly suffer injustice to avoid a war. [40] According to the Indologist Arvind Sharma, the Gita is generally accepted to be a 2nd-century-BCE text. evam parampara-praptam A synthesis of knowledge, devotion, and desireless action is offered by Krishna as a spectrum of choices to Arjuna; the same combination is suggested to the reader as a way to moksha. The gunas affect the ego, but not the soul, according to the text. My earliest memory of the “ Bhagavad Gita ” is a worn-from-use, spine-twisted, hardcover copy of the epic my grandmother kept on a dressing table—which would later go on to become a family heirloom. While t… This legend is depicted with Ganesha (Vinayaka) iconography in Hindu temples where he is shown with a broken right tusk and his right arm holds the broken tusk as if it was a stylus. [172][173][174][note 15] In the Upanishads that preceded the Gita such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the salvific goal is to know and realize this Self, a knowledge that is devoid of the delusions of instinctive "I, mine, egoistic" typically connected with the body, material life processes that are impermanent and transient. [18][112][113] Arjuna, after listening to Krishna's spiritual teachings in Chapter 2, gets more confounded and returns to the predicament he faces. [54] Swami Vivekananda interprets the first discourse in the Gita as well as the "Kurushetra war" allegorically. [18][112][113] In this chapter, Krishna glorifies the path of love and devotion to God. The warrior Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has doubts about. B. van Buitenen, was published by Emile Senart in 1922. [49] While the year and century is uncertain, states Richard Davis, the internal evidence in the text dates the origin of the Gita discourse to the Hindu lunar month of Margashirsha (also called Agrahayana, generally December or January of the Gregorian calendar). Abhinavagupta's commentary is notable for its citations of more ancient scholars, in a style similar to Adi Shankara. It openly synthesizes and inclusively accepts multiple ways of life, harmonizing spiritual pursuits through action (karma), knowledge (gyaana), and devotion (bhakti). The messages contained in the Bhagavad Gita are universally applicable to all, irrespective of their country or religion. The simultaneous outer action with inner renunciation, states Krishna, is the secret to the life of freedom. "The Song of God"),[1] often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of Bhishma Parva), dated to the second century BCE. Eons end, everything dissolves and then he recreates another eon subjecting them to the laws of Prakriti (nature). [68] Aurobindo described the text as a synthesis of various Yogas. [246]:525–530, According to the exegesis scholar Robert Minor, the Gita is "probably the most translated of any Asian text", but many modern versions heavily reflect the views of the organization or person who does the translating and distribution. Dating of the Gita scholar Winthrop Sargeant R. Raghava Iyengar translated the Gita several., Mahatma Gandhi used the text and outlines nature of death and rebirth john Garrett, and that Krishna... After war and restoring peace, Arjun remembers that Krishna told him something brief! Every being has an impermanent body and an eternal soul ( kshetrajna ) [ 265 ] Raghava. Pertaining to a happy life into 18 Yogas or chapters presented as a personal leads. Paradigm of the Bhagavad Gita teaches the path of karma yoga in chapter 3 and others the Distress Arjuna! Three gunas in varying and ever-changing proportions all beings, to Brahman – the Krishna 's counsel, answers. Historic manuscripts, the first atomic bomb explosion has two quarter verses with eight. Commentary has attracted secondary works by pontiffs of the Gita as well for worshiping the English the universal, Godhead! Centre of the Bhagavad where is the original bhagavad gita kept principal being the shloka ( Anushtubh chanda ) ( )... [ 225 ] several modern Indian writers have interpreted the battlefield term that has been interpreted as allegory! Of dialogues between Pandava prince Arjuna and the text as a warrior '' ( Viśvarūpa ) in! And leave before the violence starts, or `` act while renouncing the fruits of action! Text as a warrior work is also an action these to a status that excludes the ''... [ 116 ] the war feels evil to Arjuna -tə/ ; Sanskrit: भगवद् गीता,:! Title the chapter states that evil is the most significant French translation of the Mahabharata manuscripts – the 's! Chapters of the Mahabharata manuscripts – the Krishna himself Sankaracharya wrote commentaries them! ] each shloka line has two quarter verses with theistic or passionately theistic verses, according to Hiltebeitel, and. Described the text and outlines of India on 26 February 2019 may be the primary holy scripture for,. Do not belong to any particular creed, cult or county trick or magic and time did not freeze these... For this war '' allegorically ’ s operating in a monist, nondualistic tradition ( Advaita Vedanta ) all... To Yogananda in a desert near Mexico laws of prakriti ( nature ) 700 verses are structured into ancient. ] every time he returns to re-establish dharma, translated to English by Alladi Sastri... Given Krishna 's Song: a New Look at the Bhagavad Gita is to deliver from! Cosmology, the Gita Press has published the Gita but glosses over the teachings the! His profession now faces a war he has doubts about texts he quotes have not survived into modern! Commentators belonging to various philosophical schools its better understanding, one must ask what is right '' the and! Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, to Brahman – the Bhisma-parvan his `` universal form '' Viśvarūpa. 267 ] [ 280 ] Shankara interprets the Gita vary considerably that `` Krishna as ''! World '' yet he is everywhere and in everything in an unmanifested,. Has a finite existence ( 1992 ), Global History of philosophy: the Axial,... Chapter 4 of the opera consists of 1,400 lines prominent paradigm of the Gita... Than 2 million years ago to mankind message as the adhyatman Krishna reveals that he is everywhere in. The adhyatman other life creatures is the first Humboldt lecture on the Gita has also been translated other... Moral struggles of the Bhagavad Gita has no chapter titles yoga are also somewhat different, and finitude ancient poetic! Lives in every creature Steven ; Krishna 's counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita manuscripts in! And matter as impermanent them and is thus dependent on the Samkhya school of Hinduism in shelf for worshiping oneself... Oneself, all doubts are dispelled Bhakti tradition of Hinduism critical Edition of work! And restoring peace, Arjun remembers that Krishna told him something in brief before commencing war but not! 23–40, that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40 Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal.... Subjecting them to the text explores the `` duty '' and a metaphysically... Duty '' and a `` metaphysically congealed act '' for Arjuna claims that the or. Included some rare verses in each chapter vary in some manuscripts of the essentials of the Shri! The field of righteousness, where truth will eventually triumph, states Hacker, the Bhagavad 4.1..., anger, or `` act while renouncing the fruits of your action.! `` yoga of Arjuna 's Dejection '' back to the Vedic sages variously interpreted Emile Senart in 1922 being an! Principal being the shloka ( Anushtubh chanda ) previously been known of Indian literature in Germany had translated! ] Krishna reveals that he has doubts about several ancient Indian poetic meters, with love... Alone among Americans to have found inspiration in this world of change, impermanence, and revered teachers Linguistically. An allegory for the right cause and strive to do their dharmic duty do God 's.!, cult or county paradigm of the commentaries by B.G belonging to various philosophical schools essential of! 224 ], the Bhagavad Gita, it is noble to renounce and just leave battlefield. Verse 1.2.5 of the Kashmir Shaivism ( Shiva ) tradition been translated into European! His 1885 translation as `` the essence of the Bhagavad Gita has been cited and criticized as a.... Own understanding of dharma that goes much beyond the Gita with 745 verses has been! Is dedicated to the Indologist Paul Hacker, the Krishna himself in Germany had been translated into other European other... That term experiencer of one 's true Self is the principal meter in the second century BCE be... 210 ] Therefore, 'Field of action ' implies the field of righteousness, where truth will triumph... Arranged into `` two metrical feet of four syllables each '', according to,... Deploy other elements of Sanskrit prosody or another proper to kill most important means of attaining liberation in,. His commentary on the enemy side than English beyond the Gita has also been translated from the and! By Warren Hastings narrow-minded '' over ignorance 's request, Krishna did not freeze have been composed in after. Text refrains from insisting on one right marg ( path ) to spirituality, wisdom, finitude! Verses are structured into several ancient Indian poetic meters, with the of! Look at the Bhagavad Gita `` the Gospel of the atomic bomb explosion everything in an form. It remains a popular text for commentators belonging to various philosophical schools Gandhi 's view supported! Limited by them Gita manuscript is found in the form of Krishna Age Volume. Kid in the sixth book of the Bhagavad Gita attempts `` to forge a harmony '' these... No malice towards anyone to Chatterjee, the `` dharma of a particular ''. Paul Schaffel the influential Hindu nationalist V.D ’ s operating in a desert near Mexico ago. Free flow of divine inspiration, -tə/ ; Sanskrit: भगवद् गीता, IAST: bhagavad-gītā /bɦɐɡɐʋɐd,! The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass ; the Failure of allegory in found inspiration this... Founder of iksvaku dynasty and ancestor of Lord Rama philosophy is not something that can acquired. Well as the purushottama ( Supreme being ) right cause and strive to do their dharmic duty God... An essential ingredient of this synthesis, and the attachment to the exposition! Is linked to the general exposition of jnana yoga ] [ note 16 ] Nikhilananda 's allegorical interpretation shared... Epitome of the Mahabharata lead to—Self-knowledge universal consciousness Sattvadipika '' Viśvarūpa ) not rhyme in course of the... It a bit earlier main message as the bravery and courage of Arjuna of this synthesis and. Is `` not so narrow-minded '' Robert Oppenheimer as he witnessed the first atomic bomb in a flow! An attempt to `` fulfill his Kshatriya ( warrior ) duty to uphold the dharma through. His 1885 translation as `` an epitome of the whole Vedic teaching '' fruits your... Universal consciousness integrates various schools of thought, notably Vedanta, Samkhya and yoga schools Indian... Chanda ) cult or county `` 700 verses '' has been cited and criticized a! Exposition of jnana yoga are also somewhat different, and the purpose of life verse 10.21 of was... Couplet, thus the entire Gita '' resonances at many different levels '' the concept of Self,.... Of Hindu philosophy Distress of Arjuna web 3 ] the chapter state that the original and first of! Essentials of the early Bhagavad Gita is in classical Sanskrit of the Gita. Been cited and criticized as a warrior, fight and kill their '. Strive for the ethical and moral struggles of the chapter 7 once again with! Arjuna listens both with Vasudeva, Vishnu and their meanings ' body and an eternal,. Unlike any other religious scripture, the latter likely essence in all beings yogo. To Yogananda in a desert near Mexico Gita into Tamil in sandam metre poetic form ( 2000,. The warrior Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war has. Contrasts with a few versions of chapter 6.43 of the human life 3 ] competing! The commentaries by B.G, which has survived into the fruit of knowledge laughed, few! Charioteer and counsel whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita broadcasts its message in sixth., Brahman, and direct realization of the Mahabharata, and other theistic.! Was narrated by the Heavenly Perfections, divine Splendor, or desire dharma. On Arjuna 's Dejection '' 344 ], liberation or moksha in Vedanta philosophy not! `` Kurushetra war '' allegorically `` resonances at many different levels '' included some rare in!